Division:
El resto**: remainder El resto de 10 entre 3 es 1: the remainder of 10 divided by 3 is 1; 10 divided by 3 leaves 1 ** ¡Muy distinto de "la resta"! Campos: La geometría: geometry La combinatoria: combinatorics La probabilidad: probability La estadística: statistics Classification of mathematical statements (group with el teorema): El axioma: axiom La conjetura: conjecture La hipótesis: hypothesis Important general terms: El conjunto: set El grupo: group El cuerpo: field El binomio: binomial El polinomio: polynomial La relación binaria: binary relation La función: function inyectiva: injective sobreyectiva: surjective Types of number: imaginario: imaginary complejo: complex 
As I start my school year (it's almost Fall in the northern hemisphere), I'll start making a list as I encounter them of Algebra terms that I think would be important (and for which I'd like to know the Spanish equivalents). I will have an entire class this year of ESOL students ("English as a Second Language"), the grand majority of whom are Spanish speakers with very little (if any) background in English. This class will be team taught with an ESOL expert (who is a VERY dynamic teacher!). Neither of us is very fluent in Spanish....
Here's a list from our first week of discussions about content: Inverse Opposite (i.e. Additive Inverse) Reciprocal (i.e. Multiplicative Inverse) Commutative Property Associative Property Distributive Property Identity (in other words, Additive Identity or Multiplicative Identity) Operations (which includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.) Grouping Symbols Parentheses Expression Terms (in an expression) Like Terms 
My ESOL/Algebra class this year is going well. 25 out of the 28 students are native Spanish speakers and usually enjoy the fact that I am trying to learn to speak Spanish. Although on Friday I heard something like "No me gusta que la profesora puede entender el español" or something similar. :)
Anyway  I have been trying to do oneonone explanations with the Spanish speakers using as much Spanish as I can (when I know I am correct). We use the word "equis" a lot. :) But I have found that I don't know how to say "x squared" in Spanish. I know that "square" is "cuadro". Is "x squared" said as "x cuadrado"? So if I were reading an expression, I would say something like this: (x^2 + 3x) would be "equis cuadrado más tres equis". ??? "Cuadrado"??? 
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Two plus three equals ... Five divided by two equals... Three times two equals... :) 
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Equis al cuadrado más tres equis. :) 
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Es como las raíces: raíz cuadrada, raíz cúbica y después raíz cuarta, etc. Yo no diría raíz segunda ni tercera :thinking: 
In English, we can say "x squared" OR "x to the second power" and "x cubed" OR "x to the third power". Both are equally acceptable, and I teach both.
With the roots, I would only ever say "square root", but could easily exchange "third root" for "cube root". English is a strange language.......... :) 
En México se dice "equis cuadrada".
x cubed is an "equis al cubo"... sometimes (not too often) "equis cúbica" Raise to a power is "elevar a la [cuarta, quinta, etc.] potencia" As for the roots, it's the same as Irma has said. By the way, Lou Ann, all the letters (and variables) in Spanish are always referred to in feminine. ;) 
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